How loud noises can affect your heart

We know that high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol and smoking aren’t good for the heart. Well, it turns out loud noise is another risk factor your doctor may not want to keep quiet about.

That noisy little headline comes from researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital. They studied 499 people with an average age of 56.

At the beginning of the study period, all of them were free of cardiovascular disease. Over time, they tracked how many of the test subjects got heart attacks and strokes. The researchers used the home addresses of study participants to estimate the level of ambient noise where they resided.

Compared to people who lived with lower levels of noise, those with the highest levels of chronic noise exposure were three times more likely to have a heart attack, a stroke or other major cardiovascular event.

The study’s authors said typical sources of heavy chronic noise exposure include close proximity to a highway, a major airport or a busy traffic zone.

Commercial aircraft on takeoff produce noise levels above 120 decibels. A telephone ring produces about 80 decibels and a jackhammer about 100. Highway traffic noise ranges from 70 to 80 decibels at a distance of 15 metres from the highway.

The researchers found that people with the highest levels of noise exposure had higher levels of brain activity inside the amygdala.

The test subjects with higher activity inside the amygdala also had greater amounts of inflammation in their arteries inside the heart and the brain. Doctors know from other studies that inflammation of the arteries is necessary for the development of heart disease and strokes.

In the current study, the researchers found that high levels of activity inside the amygdala actually increased the level of inflammation inside the coronary arteries.

Air pollution, smoking and diabetes are other known factors that cause inflammation of the arteries.

In this study, when the researchers took those factors into account, noise still turned out to be a major contributor to inflammation and therefore to the risk of heart attacks and strokes.

Rising rates of noise are happening everywhere. Anyone who lives in a city anywhere on the planet should be concerned about the health impact of exposure to excessive noise.

Until now, we’ve chalked up rising levels of noise from busy highways, traffic zones and airports to progress and prosperity. Now, we see that there’s a hidden danger to our health.

And it’s something your body won’t let you escape. You may be able to tune the noise out of your conscious mind, but your brain and your heart do not develop tolerance to noise. If anything, your arteries may become even more prone over time to damage caused by noise.


What type of investor are you?

Risk and reward are opposite sides of the same coin, and it is almost certain there will be a trade-off between the two to achieve your long-term investment goals.

Investment guru Warren Buffett is quoted as saying that “risk comes from not knowing what you’re doing”. Take this billionaire’s advice and understand the risk of the various types of investments before leaping in – and, importantly, know your own risk profile and whether you are risk friendly or risk averse regarding your investments.

For the average person, risk means the temporary or permanent loss or decrease of your investment value. But without taking on calculated risks, your rewards from investing make be inadequate, so make risk your friend.

A good financial adviser can help establish the optimal level of investment risk that will let you achieve your investment goals, taking into account your risk profile. Legislation requires that an adviser obtain all the necessary information to establish your needs and objectives and to recommend products in accordance with those needs and your risk profile.

Determining your risk profile is usually done via a questionnaire. There is debate in the industry about the appropriateness of some of these questionnaires, but as long as your adviser assesses your risk profile holistically and takes into account your financial goals, investment time horizon, existing investments and other relevant factors – and you stick to the strategy designed for you – you should be able to meet your goals.

Those goals can be as simple at buying a new car in four years’ time, paying for the education of a child in 18 years’ time, or being financially secure when you retire.

There are three aspects to risk. All three should be taken into account when deciding how to allocate your investments between cash, bonds, property and shares, or to a combination of these.

  • The required risk is associated with the return you need to reach your investment goals.
  • Risk tolerance is your emotional capacity to withstand losses from your investment. It speaks to whether you stick to your strategy without panicking and ditching the plan.
  • Risk capacity is your ability to financially absorb any investment losses.

Risk tolerance

Advisers may assume you are comfortable with a high level of risk because you enjoy activities such as parachuting and bungee jumping, but that is not necessarily true for the way you feel about taking large bets with your investments.

Your risk tolerance should be determined through the use of questions that are valid, relevant, reliable and not too technical. An example of a good indicator of your risk tolerance is whether you would accept a decline in your investment value of, say, 10% over any 12 months to achieve a return of inflation plus 3% a year over three to four years. That quantifies the risk objectively over a certain period, is not too technical and is relevant to the investment at hand.

Furthermore, a financial adviser should work out the possibilities and probabilities of an investment and advise you on the potential for a decline in the value of an investment under consideration or one that is recommended for you.

Having your risk tolerance assessed is important, otherwise you could be left unable to make informed decisions, or it could lead to inappropriate advice. You may, for instance, panic when the market drops sharply and then sell your investment, which could have a significant impact on your financial wellbeing in the long run.

It is important to understand that risk tolerance is only one part of the assessment of your risk profile. You may well sleep soundly if your strategy relies on conservative investments, but it may be woefully inadequate to help you achieve your long-term financial goals. This is where the assessment of the next type of risk comes into the equation.

Risk required to achieve your goals

You need to differentiate between risk tolerance – how much risk you feel comfortable taking on – and the risk you need to take to achieve your long-term investment goals.

This measure of risk will take into account the amount you need to save, your time horizon and the returns of the various asset classes such as cash, bonds, property and shares. Generally, shares are regarded as the most risky and cash (money in the bank) as the least risky.

The higher percentage of shares of a fund or investment, the riskier the investment is likely to be over the short term.

Understanding the difference between volatility and risk is important. If an investment is volatile, it’s not necessarily risky.

Keeping your money in cash over the long term is considered risky because you will not be able to outperform inflation and your money will lose its real value over time.

If you want your capital to beat inflation, you will have to embrace an investment that contains growth assets such as shares, irrespective of their volatility. Such an investment will give you the best chance of outperforming inflation over the long term, as long as you are patient.

5 Thing’s top CEOs do daily

With the same 24-hour days as everyone else, successful CEOs seem to have a universal ability to do it all.

While they run the show at some of the biggest companies around the world, we can’t help but wonder how they would run their own day?

In their work with high performing CEO’s of fast-growth companies, Edward Sullivan and John Baird of the Velocity Group noticed one thing: Building a highly-successful company is the result of some fairly predictable executive habits.

Although there’s no one-size-fits-all routine for success, there’s a number of similarities in the habits of C-suites across the board.

Here are 5 things top CEOs do daily:

#1 They start their day right
Whether it’s by exercising before work, meditating for a few minutes while their coffee is brewing or reading the headlines while chewing their toast, many go-getting CEO’s have a morning routine that sets them up for a good day.

Bob Iger, the CEO of Disney, told The New York Times, “I get up at 4:30 every morning. I like the quiet time. It’s a time I can recharge my batteries a bit. I exercise and I clear my head and I catch up on the world.”

Billionaire John Paul DeJoria, the co-founder of Patrón tequila and Paul Mitchell hair products, starts every morning with five minutes of quiet reflection. “The very second I wake up, I stay in bed for about five minutes and just be.”

#2 They read…a lot!
Warren Buffet, billionaire and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, spends 80% of his day reading. In his documentary, Becoming Warren Buffet, he recommends that people try to read at least 500 pages a day. “That’s how knowledge works. It builds up, like compound interest,” the 88-year-old magnate says.

Even the younger generation of CEOs, like Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook, have acknowledged the value of reading and even publicly taken up the challenge of making it a habit.

#3 They work with plan
One of the 7 habits of highly effective people, which author Stephen M.R. Covey identifies, is that they have the ability to put the first things first. There are often so many priorities in massive organisations that it is difficult for people to determine what the major focus should be. Which is why CEO’s should be able to prioritise and compartmentalise daily tasks.

Danny Meyer, CEO of Union Square Hospitality Group, has a memo system for example that helps him keep up with all his responsibilities without getting sidetracked throughout the day.

#4 They “keep thinking” and stay creative
In a recent Fast Company poll, 60% of those surveyed said that creativity will be the most important leadership quality over the next five years. And perhaps no one exhibits the power of creativity better than the tech titans from Silicon Valley.

Tim Cook, CEO of Apple, says that creativity is about people who “keep thinking” until they get it right. For Cook and other giants like Amazon’s Jeff Bezos and Oracle’s Larry Ellison, creativity is essential to lead their employees to innovate new products and come up with solutions to problems that may not even exist yet.

Jeff Bezos says he tries to get all these high-IQ meetings in before lunch to make sure he’s fully present.

#5 They end their days well
“The best decision I ever made was committing to getting eight hours of sleep a night,” Arianna Huffington, co-founder and editor-in-chief of Huffington Post, said.

In her book, The Sleep Revolution, Arianna writes that once she started giving sleep the respect it deserves, her life improved in pretty much every way. This came after she fainted from sleep deprivation and broke her cheekbone in 2007. “Now, instead of waking up to the sense that I have to trudge through activities, I wake up feeling joyful about the day’s possibilities.”

10 Hacks that make travelling the globe easier

Whether you’re an international globetrotter or a homebody braving a journey within South Africa for the first time, travelling can be an overwhelming experience. How many bags should you pack – and what should you pack in them?
couring the internet for tips from experienced travellers is a great way to prepare for your journey, particularly if you’re looking for advice about new destinations. “However, there are loads of quick hacks that experienced travellers know that can help make the journey quicker, easier – and importantly, cheaper too.”

1. Find free money
Maybe calling it free money is a bit of a push, but make sure that you understand all the loyalty programmes you belong to, and play them to your advantage. Smart banking behaviour can earn you rewards ‘currency’ that can be used to purchase flights or pay for accommodation. Many banks also offer credit cards linked to airlines’ rewards schemes, earning you ‘miles’ towards the purchase of flights. Be aware of the trade-off on the potential cost of paying off your bill – and, if you can, settle at the end of the month so you don’t incur interest fees that might wipe out your loyalty saving.
Maybe calling it free money is a bit of a push, but make sure that you understand all the loyalty programmes you belong to, and play them to your advantage. Smart banking behaviour can earn you rewards ‘currency’ that can be used to purchase flights or pay for accommodation. Many banks also offer credit cards linked to airlines’ rewards schemes, earning you ‘miles’ towards the purchase of flights. Be aware of the trade-off on the potential cost of paying off your bill – and, if you can, settle at the end of the month so you don’t incur interest fees that might wipe out your loyalty saving.

3. Set up some snacks

Most low-cost carriers charge extra for food and beverages inflight – and let’s be honest, sometimes you wish you could choose something other than the ‘chicken-or-beef’ that regular airlines offer. Ask your local butcher to vacuum pack some biltong to snack on (although remember it’s against the law to take meat products into many other countries – so eat it all before you disembark!). Another trick is to take an empty water bottle with you, and fill it once you’re on the other side of the security controls, where fluids are limited to 100ml per container. If you’ve got lots of small goodies to take with, you could always wear cargo pants and a jacket with lots of pockets too… just remember to leave your pen-knife behind!

4. Pack properly

The South African Civil Aviation Authority recently changed regulations to say that carry-on luggage may not exceed 7kg. Choose the contents of your inflight luggage carefully: travel with a tablet computer instead of a notebook if you’re travelling for work, and pack your Kindle instead of your epic book. Buy snacks and drinks (if you’re not hacking the water bottle trick) once you’ve gone through security. If you’re taking your toiletries on-board with you, pack the absolute minimum, and include miniatures of your favourite cosmetics – or decant into smaller bottles available from most supermarkets.

If your day-tripping luggage is bigger or heavier than the 7kg allowed on South African flights, you could always pack your day pack into your main luggage. Look for a bag that is soft enough to do this, but that will still be strong enough for your daily needs.

5. Do it digitally

There’s not yet a digital substitute for the South African passport, but it’s worth scanning yours, along with your identity document and driver’s licence and emailing the images to an address you can access wherever you are. If you have an iPhone, save it and any other travel documents to PassBook, and you’ll be able to reference them should they get lost or stolen.

Many airlines offer digital boarding passes, saving you the hassle of carrying around (or losing) a slip of paper. You can often get these by booking in online up to 24 hours before take-off.

6. Dabbling with data

Data roaming is expensive – and if you’re going somewhere particularly exciting, there may not be data at all! Download the Google Maps of your destinations to your phone before you leave. You may not be able to use geolocation, but you will be able to find your way – and the maps will be in the language of your choice. If you really need to access the web, look out for restaurants that offer free WiFi – if you’re travelling abroad, MacDonald’s and Burger King are the best bet for those (and for always-clean toilets).

7. Talk to locals

Whether you’re day-tripping in Davos or wandering around Woodstock, take the time to chat to the locals about the best spots to eat, the best attractions to visit, and for advice on getting around. There’s no point in travelling if you’re going to eat at the same fast food chains that you support at home – and you might as well not leave your own country if you’re not going to find out how people live elsewhere!

8. Accommodation alternatives

If it’s the cost of accommodation that’s putting you off travelling, remember that there is more to sleeping out than hotels. You could swop a home with someone in another country, giving you both the chance to experience day-to-day life in another land, while staying in owner-run bed-and-breakfast establishments will give you that home away from home feeling, along with some great advice on local attractions and restaurants. ‘Hostels’ might evoke images of drunken students (which if you’re a drunken student is great…) but there are many hostels that offer family rooms in good areas – and they’re a great place to meet travellers from all over the world too.

9. Carrying cash (alternatives)

If you’re travelling to any developed country, there’s no need to ‘buy’ lots of currency before you leave – you’ll just spend money on exchange commission, and you will be a target for theft. It’s a good idea to have a small amount of local currency on you for that all-important coffee when you land, or for your first taxi fare from the airport, but you can use your credit or debit card almost anywhere in the world. If you’re going to use these cards to pay, ask your bank what it charges for international transactions and withdrawals, and balance that against what it would cost to buy cash before you leave.

If you’re worried about the security issues surrounding cash, rather, load your travel money into a travel wallet card, which allows you to purchase your FOREX before departure. The issuing bank loads your money onto an EMV-secure payment card at a fixed exchange rate, allowing you to manage your travel funds separately from your day to day expenses, with the convenience of a debit card.

10. Research, research, research

If you haven’t worked it out yet, the key to keeping travel costs under control is research: ask your friends, ask Twitter, ask anyone you know who has travelled for their advice – and then pick and choose which tips you use. There are many sites that give you the power to search for and compare flight costs, accommodation and car hire. It’s worth spending some time on these sites, well in advance of your trip, so that you’re sure to get the best deal when the time comes to pack your bags and head off into the wide, wide world.

Also remember that different airlines have different pricing policies, with some offering last minute deals, while others offer cheaper prices for bookings made far in advance of flying.

Twitter releases election meddling data

Twitter is releasing all known accounts and posts related to “information operations” dating back to 2016, when it was first learned that foreign operators were using social media to meddle in US elections.

Twitter has already disclosed the account numbers, but is now releasing the actual tweets, images, video and other information.

The company said Wednesday that the data comprises more than 4,600 accounts and more than 10 million tweets, most affiliated with the Russia-linked Internet Research Agency and potentially linked to Iran.

Twitter says the earliest activity it found on its service from these accounts dates back to 2009.

Russia’s IRA has been indicted by US special counsel Robert Mueller for its actions during the US presidential election.

The datasets are available for download on Twitter’s “elections integrity” page.

WhatsApp could soon have ads in your story updates

Multiple reports have suggested that WhatsApp will soon be showing adverts in the app’s Status feature.

WhatsApp Vice President Chris Daniels told journalist in India from the Economic Times that the ads would count towards the “primary monetisation mode for the company”.

The company will offer an opportunity for businesses to reach people, but no rollout timeline was given, according to the reports.

This decision to place ads comes after WhatsApp launched its Business API in the same month.

Businesses are able to respond to clients through the API for free for up to 24 hours, after which WhatsApp will charge a fixed rate per message.

Recently, WhatsApp launched sticker packs that both Android and iOS users can use when communicating through the app.

The sticker packs will include stickers from WhatsApp designers as well as a selection of stickers from other artists. WhatsApp has also added support for third-party stickers that will allow designers and developers to create their own stickers too.

Facebook is building glasses that could beam virtual friends into your home

Facebook has confirmed it’s working on a pair of augmented reality glasses.
The sci-fi goggles would let you see virtual objects in the real world – as if they were actually there.
Augmented reality is a fast-growing type of technology that puts overlays 3D computer-generated graphics into the world around you.
A very basic example of this is the hugely popular Pokémon Go mobile game, which lets you see virtual Pokémon using your smartphone’s camera.

But proper AR tech in the future could revolutionize the world – letting people transport anywhere virtually, and simulate pets or even giant cinema screens.

You could invite friends over to your house and have them appear in virtual AR form, or you could potentially use an app like Facebook on any surface or in mid-air – just like the Minority Report movie.

This isn’t the first time Facebook has shown interest in augmented reality, of course.

Speaking in April last year, billionaire Facebook boss Mark Zuckerberg said he could foresee a future where AR specs existed.